Geography Notes of Our Country(India) For Competitive Exam

India is the seventh largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world.


The land mass of India has an area of 3.28 million square km.


India has a land boundary of about 15,200 km and the total length of the coastline of the mainland including Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep is 7,516.6 km. 


India’s total area accounts for about 2.4 percent of the total geographical area of the world.



India is bounded by the young fold mountains in the northwest, north, and northeast. South of about 22° north latitude,the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on its east.

India lying entirely in the Northern hemisphere, the mainland extends between latitudes 8°4'N and 37°6'N and longitudes 68°7'E and 97°25'E.


The Tropic of Cancer (23° 30'N) divides the country into almost two equal parts.


To the southeast and southwest of the mainland, lie the Andaman and Nicobar islands and the Lakshadweep islands in Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea respectively.


 From Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh there is a time lag of two hours. Hence, time along the Standard Meridian of India (82°30'E) passing through Mirzapur (in Uttar Pradesh) is taken as the standard time for the whole country.


The latitudinal extent influences the duration of the day and night,as one moves from south to north.


India has an eminent position in the Indian Ocean which justifies the naming of an Ocean after it.


India occupies an important strategic position in South Asia. India has 29 states and 7 Union Territories.


Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar while Maldives Islands are situated to the south of the Lakshadweep Islands.


India shares its land boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan in the northwest, China (Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east.